"sapiens" review (human evolution)


A professor responded to posting a pdf for the following book when someone sent him version 16 ± 1 of the vintologi bible as if it would in any way refute vintologi

error0: it was claimed that big bang was the origin of space and time, there is of course zero evidence for that, there are several competing theories for what causes the big bang (big bounce, big rip cyclic cosmology, inflation, conformal cyclic cosmology, etc)

error1: claiming history started with culture is very questionable, orcas also have culture

error2: going for a simplistic explanation of how we divide into different species, often this is done even when interbreeding is possible (such as neanderthal & sapiens)

error3: It was claimed humans had little usage of their intelligence before advanced tools where developed but this is questionable, intelligence is generally useful even if you do not have any tools at all (figuring out how to avoid predators, how to get food, etc).


The book promotes the theory that the reason why humans have made this much progress is due to social cooperation, this however is questionable.

Our current capitalistic society instead does depend on people working mostly for themselves to meet a market need, you do not need to interact personally much with your costumers, you can just see which product that sell well and adjust based on that.

Is it really correct that no significant progress in intellectual abilities has taken place during the last 30000 years?


our average brainsize did still go down but it's possible we compensating by becoming more efficient and thus still more intelligent.


Individualism vs social cohesion
Individualism in the form of capitalism has been proven to be far more efficient than other systems such as communism. Capitalism is more effective when people can be instantly fired/hired and it becomes less effective if people hire friends/relatives instead of the one who is best suited for the job.

In the book the replacement theory was mentioned (the now refuted idea that homo sapiens replaced all previous humans without interbreeding) and it was mentioned that it was held as the norm partly becuase it was more politically correct, of course the politically incorrect reality eventually became undeniable. If humans had been less focused on social approvas the replacement theory had been discarded long before the discovery of neanderthal dna in most modern humans.


Spoken language isn't required for communication
Spoken language still have advantages over sign language
0. you can speak while you use your hands for other things.
1. you can communicate in the dark.
2. being able to talk to someone you cannot directly see (lost or something in between).

Intelligence allows for many types of effective communification and speech communication is used among humans becuase it's convenient.


Humans are less socially oriented than some insects
Humans are far more prone to individualistic thinking than animals like bees.

Humans used to live in tribes but other animals also live in something like that.



The reason humans dominate the planet is becuase of intelligence and other traits that favor us such as great abillity to sweat, being able to arm ourselves due to bipedalism



Population size and intelligence
A recent study he conducted with a colleague, Drew Bailey, led Geary to this epiphany. The aim of their investigation was to explore how cranial size changed as our species adapted to an increasingly complex social environment between 1.9 million and 10,000 years ago. Since that period predates the first alphabets, the researchers had no written record with which to gauge the social milieu of our predecessors. Consequently, the Missouri team used population density as a proxy for social complexity, reasoning that when more people are concentrated in a geographic region, trade springs up between groups, there is greater division of labor, the gathering of food becomes more efficient, and interactions among individuals become richer and more varied.

Bailey and Geary found population density did indeed track closely with brain size, but in a surprising way. When population numbers were low, as was the case for most of our evolution, the cranium kept getting bigger. But as population went from sparse to dense in a given area, cranial size declined, highlighted by a sudden 3 to 4 percent drop in EQ starting around 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. “We saw that trend in Europe, China, Africa, Malaysia; everywhere we looked,” Geary says.

The observation led the researchers to a radical conclusion: As complex societies emerged, the brain became smaller because people did not have to be as smart to stay alive. As Geary explains, individuals who would not have been able to survive by their wits alone could scrape by with the help of others; supported, as it were, by the first social safety nets.

Geary is not implying that our beetle-browed forebears would have towered over us intellectually. But if Cro-Magnons had been raised with techno-toys and the benefits of a modern education, he ventures, “I’m sure we would get good results. Don’t forget, these guys were responsible for the ‘cultural explosion’”; a revolution in thinking that led to such startling new forms of expression as cave paintings, specialized tools, and bones carved into the first flutes. In terms of raw innate smarts, he believes, they probably were as “bright as today’s brightest” and might even have surpassed us.


This refutes the notion that we needed bigger brains to function better in bigger social groups which was to be expected. In reality being too intelligent in a highly developed society can end badly if you also suffer from pathalogical honestly, you often need to conceal your real beliefs since a lot of people have fragile egos and react very badly if someone points of how they are wrong.


Religion sold as science
The author Yuval Noah Harari is spouting his religious beliefs in that book while he is pretending it's some scientific truth, it's speculation at best, it also happen to fall into line with current political dogma such as 'liberal' democracy.

His notion of "you need high intelligence to function socially" imply that people that fail to fit in in our current society are stupid when often the opposite is true. Social conformity isn't intelligence and often it's not even beneficial from an evolutionary perspective.


References provided
While he does provide references they do not really support the ideology he is trying to sell.

1 An Animal of No Significance
1 Ann Gibbons, ‘Food for Thought: Did the First Cooked Meals Help Fuel the Dramatic Evolutionary Expansion of the Human Brain?’, Science 316:5831 (2007), 1,558–60.

2 The Tree of Knowledge
1 Robin Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998).

2 Frans de Waal, Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000); Frans de Waal, Our Inner
Ape: A Leading Primatologist Explains Why We Are Who We Are (New York: Riverhead Books, 2005); Michael L. Wilson and Richard W. Wrangham,
‘Intergroup Relations in Chimpanzees’, Annual Review of Anthropology 32 (2003), 363–92; M. McFarland Symington, ‘Fission-Fusion Social Organization in Ateles and Pan, International Journal of Primatology 11:1 (1990), 49; Colin A. Chapman and Lauren J. Chapman, ‘Determinants of Groups Size in Primates: The Importance of Travel Costs’, in On the Move: How and Why Animals Travel in Groups, ed. Sue Boinsky and Paul A. Garber (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 26.

3 Dunbar, Grooming, Gossip and the Evolution of Language, 69–79; Leslie C. Aiello and R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Neocortex Size, Group Size, and the Evolution of Language’, Current Anthropology 34:2 (1993), 189. For criticism of this approach see: Christopher McCarthy et al., ‘Comparing Two Methods for Estimating Network Size’, Human Organization 60:1 (2001), 32; R. A. Hill and
R. I. M. Dunbar, ‘Social Network Size in Humans’, Human Nature 14:1 (2003),

4 Yvette Taborin, ‘Shells of the French Aurignacian and Perigordian’, in Before Lascaux: The Complete Record of the Early Upper Paleolithic, ed. Heidi Knecht, Anne Pike-Tay and Randall White (Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1993), 211–28. 5 G. R. Summerhayes, ‘Application of PIXE-PIGME to Archaeological Analysis of Changing Patterns of Obsidian Use in West New Britain, Papua New Guinea’, in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Method and Theory, ed. Steven M. Shackley (New York: Plenum Press, 1998), 129–58.

3 A Day in the Life of Adam and Eve
1 Christopher Ryan and Cacilda Jethá, Sex at Dawn: The Prehistoric Origins of Modern Sexuality (New York: Harper, 2010); S. Beckerman and P. Valentine (eds.), Cultures of Multiple Fathers. The Theory and Practice of Partible Paternity in Lowland South America (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2002).

2 Noel G. Butlin, Economics and the Dreamtime: A Hypothetical History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 98–101; Richard Broome,
Aboriginal Australians (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 2002), 15; William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies (Wentworth Falls, NSW:
Social Science Press, 1988), 52.

3 Fekri A. Hassan, Demographic Archaeology (New York: Academic Press, 1981), 196–9; Lewis Robert Binford, Constructing Frames of Reference: An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 143.

4 Brian Hare, The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think (Dutton: Penguin Group, 2013).

5 Christopher B. Ruff, Erik Trinkaus and Trenton W. Holliday, ‘Body Mass and Encephalization in Pleistocene Homo’, Nature 387 (1997), 173–6; M.
Henneberg and M. Steyn, ‘Trends in Cranial Capacity and Cranial Index in Subsaharan Africa During the Holocene’, American Journal of Human Biology 5:4 (1993): 473–9; Drew H. Bailey and David C. Geary, ‘Hominid Brain Evolution: Testing Climatic, Ecological and Social Competition Models’, Human Nature 20 (2009): 67–79; Daniel J. Wescott and Richard L. Jantz, ‘Assessing Craniofacial Secular Change in American Blacks and Whites Using Geometric Morphometry’, in Modern Morphometrics in Physical Anthropology: Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, ed. Dennis E. Slice (New York: Plenum Publishers, 2005), 231–45.

6 Nicholas G. Blurton Jones et al., ‘Antiquity of Postreproductive Life: Are There Modern Impacts on Hunter-Gatherer Postreproductive Life Spans?’,
American Journal of Human Biology 14 (2002), 184–205.

7 Kim Hill and A. Magdalena Hurtado, Aché Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1996), 164, 236.

8 Ibid., 78.

9 Vincenzo Formicola and Alexandra P. Buzhilova, ‘Double Child Burial from Sunghir (Russia): Pathology and Inferences for Upper Paleolithic Funerary Practices’, American Journal of Physical Anthropology 124:3 (2004), 189–98; Giacomo Giacobini, ‘Richness and Diversity of Burial Rituals in the Upper Paleolithic’, Diogenes 54:2 (2007), 19–39.

10 I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology and the Origin of Warfare’, World Archaeology 35:1 (2003), 145–65; Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000); Azar Gat, War in Human Civilization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006); Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vend, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, in Ancient Warfare: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud: Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57–73.

4 The Flood
1 James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea) and the Archaeology of Early Modern Humans’, in Rethinking the Human Revolution: New Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans, ed. Paul Mellars, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Katie Boyle (Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 395–410; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘When Did Humans First Arrive in Greater Australia and Why is it Important to Know?’, Evolutionary Anthropology 6:4 (1998), 132–46; James F. O’Connel and Jim Allen, ‘Dating the Colonization of Sahul (Pleistocene Australia – New Guinea): A Review of Recent Research’, Journal of Radiological Science 31:6 (2004), 835–53; Jon M. Erlandson, ‘Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Voyaging and the Pleistocene Colonization of the Americas’, in The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, ed. Nina G. Jablonski (San Francisco: University of California Press, 2002), 59–60, 63–4; Jon M. Erlandson and Torben C. Rick, ‘Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems’, Annual Review of Marine Science 2 (2010), 231–51; Atholl Anderson, ‘Slow
Boats from China: Issues in the Prehistory of Indo-China Seafaring’, Modern Quaternary Research in Southeast Asia 16 (2000), 13–50; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Maritime Navigation in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic’, Earth and Planetary Sciences 328 (1999), 559–60; Robert G. Bednarik, ‘Seafaring in the Pleistocene’, Cambridge Archaeological Journal 13:1 (2003), 41–66.

2 Timothy F. Flannery, The Future Eaters: An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples (Port Melbourne: Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, Science 306:5693 (2004): 70–5; Barry W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’, Journal of Biogeography 31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction’, Science 309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna: Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’, Science 292:5523 (2001), 1,888–92.

3 Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’, Quaternary Science Reviews 25:21–2 (2006), 2,692–703; Barry W. Brook et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct if Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent? Comments on “A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation” by S. Wroe and J. Field’, Quaternary Science Reviews 26:3–4 (2007), 560–4; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105:34 (2008), 12,150–3.

4 John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction, Science, 292:5523 (2001), 1,893–6; O’Connel and Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul’, 400–1.

5 L. H. Keeley, ‘Proto-Agricultural Practices Among Hunter-Gatherers: A Cross-Cultural Survey’, in Last Hunters, First Farmers: New Perspectives on the Prehistoric Transition to Agriculture, ed. T. Douglas Price and Anne Birgitte Gebauer (Santa Fe: School of American Research Press, 1995), 243–72; R. Jones, ‘Firestick Farming’, Australian Natural History 16 (1969), 224–8.

6 David J. Meitzer, First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009).
7 Paul L. Koch and Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Late Quaternary Extinctions: State of the Debate’, Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37 (2006), 215–50; Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’, 70–5.

5 History’s Biggest Fraud
1 The map is based mainly on: Peter Bellwood, First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies (Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005).

2 Jared Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies
(New York: W. W. Norton, 1997).

3 Gat, War in Human Civilization, 130–1; Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence’, Evolution and Human Behavior 34 (2013), 29–34.

4 Katherine A. Spielmann, ‘A Review: Dietary Restriction on Hunter- Gatherer Women and the Implications for Fertility and Infant Mortality’, Human Ecology 17:3 (1989), 321–45. See also: Bruce Winterhalder and Eric Alder Smith, ‘Analyzing Adaptive Strategies: Human Behavioral Ecology at Twenty-Five’, Evolutionary Anthropology 9:2 (2000), 51–72.

5 Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins and Hector Perez-Brignoli (eds.), Infant and Child Mortality in the Past (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward
Anthony Wrigley et al., English Population History from Family Reconstitution, 1580–1837 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295–6, 303. 6 Manfred Heun et al., ‘Site of Einkorn Wheat Domestication Identified by DNA Fingerprints’, Science 278:5341 (1997), 1,312–14.

7 Charles Patterson, Eternal Treblinka: Our Treatment of Animals and the Holocaust (New York: Lantern Books, 2002), 9–10; Peter J. Ucko and G. W. Dimbleby (eds.), The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals (London: Duckworth, 1969), 259.

8 Avi Pinkas (ed.), Farmyard Animals in Israel – Research, Humanism and Activity (Rishon Le-Ziyyon: The Association for Farmyard Animals, 2009 [Hebrew]), 169–99; “Milk Production – the Cow’ [Hebrew], The Dairy Council, accessed 22 March 2012, http://www.milk.org.il/cgi-webaxy/sal/sal.pl?

9 Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1969); E. C. Amoroso and P. A. Jewell, ‘The Exploitation of the Milk-Ejection Reflex by Primitive People’, in Man and Cattle: Proceedings of the Symposium on Domestication at the Royal Anthropological Institute, 24–26 May 1960, ed. A. E. Mourant and F. E. Zeuner (London: The Royal Anthropological Institute, 1963), 129–34.

10 Johannes Nicolaisen, Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg (Copenhagen: National Museum, 1963), 63.

6 Building Pyramids
1 Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2006), 636; ‘Historical Estimates of World Population’, U.S. Census Bureau, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html.

2 Robert B. Mark, The Origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological Narrative (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2002),

3 Raymond Westbrook, ‘Old Babylonian Period’, in A History of Ancient Near Eastern Law, vol. 1, ed. Raymond Westbrook (Leiden: Brill, 2003), 361–430; Martha T. Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, 2nd edn (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1997), 71–142; M. E. J. Richardson, Hammurabi’s Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary (London: T & T Clark International,

4 Roth, Law Collections from Mesopotamia, 76.

5 Ibid., 121.

6 Ibid., 122–3.

7 Ibid., 133–3.

8 Constance Brittaine Bouchard, Strong of Body, Brave and Noble: Chivalry and Society in Medieval France (New York: Cornell University Press, 1998), 99; Mary Martin McLaughlin, ‘Survivors and Surrogates: Children and Parents from the Ninth to Thirteenth Centuries’, in Medieval Families: Perspectives on Marriage, Household and Children, ed. Carol Neel (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 81 n.; Lise E. Hull, Britain’s Medieval Castles (Westport: Praeger, 2006), 144.

7 Memory Overload
1 Andrew Robinson, The Story of Writing (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1995), 63; Hans J. Nissen, Peter Damerow and Robert K. Englung, Archaic Bookkeeping: Writing and Techniques of Economic Administration in the Ancient Near East (Chicago, London: The University of Chicago Press, 1993), 36.

2 Marcia and Robert Ascher, Mathematics of the Incas – Code of the Quipu
(New York: Dover Publications, 1981).

3 Gary Urton, Signs of the Inka Khipu (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2003); Galen Brokaw, A History of the Khipu (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2010).

4 Stephen D. Houston (ed.), The First Writing: Script Invention as History
and Process (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 222.

8 There is No Justice in History
1 Sheldon Pollock, ‘Axialism and Empire’, in Axial Civilizations and World
History, ed. Johann P. Arnason, S. N. Eisenstadt and Björn Wittrock (Leiden:
Brill, 2005), 397–451.

2 Harold M. Tanner, China: A History (Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co.,
2009), 34.

3 Ramesh Chandra, Identity and Genesis of Caste System in India (Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2005); Michael Bamshad et al., ‘Genetic Evidence on the Origins of Indian Caste Population’, Genome Research 11 (2001): 904–1,004; Susan Bayly, Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).

4 Houston, First Writing, 196.

5 The secretary general, United Nations, Report of the Secretary General on the In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence Against Women, delivered to the General Assembly, UN Doc. A/16/122/Add.1 (6 July 2006), 89.

6 Sue Blundell, Women in Ancient Greece (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1995). 113–2.9.131–3.

10 The Scent of Money
1 Francisco López de Gómara, Historia de la Conquista de Mexico, vol. 1, ed. D. Joaquin Ramirez Cabanes (Mexico City: Editorial Pedro Robredo, 1943), 106.

2 Andrew M. Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, Economic History Review 20:1 (1967), 11–12; Jasim Alubudi, Repertorio Bibliográfico del Islam
(Madrid: Vision Libros, 2003), 194.

3 Watson, ‘Back to Gold – and Silver’, 17–18.

4 David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years (Brooklyn, NY: Melville
House, 2011).

5 Glyn Davies, A History of Money: From Ancient Times to the Present Day (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1994), 15.

6 Szymon Laks, Music of Another World, trans. Chester A. Kisiel (Evanston, Ill.: North-western University Press, 1989), 88–9. The Auschwitz ‘market’ was restricted to certain classes of prisoners and conditions changed dramatically across time.

7 Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money (New York: The Penguin Press,
2008), 4.

8 For information on barley money I have relied on an unpublished PhD thesis: Refael Benvenisti, ‘Economic Institutions of Ancient Assyrian Trade in the Twentieth to Eighteenth Centuries BC’ (Hebrew University of Jerusalem, unpublished PhD thesis, 2011). See also Norman Yoffee, ‘The Economy of Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. J. M. Sasson (New York: C. Scribner’s Sons, 1995), 1,387–99; R. K. Englund, ‘Proto-Cuneiform Account-Books and Journals’, in Creating Economic Order: Record-keeping, Standardization and the Development of Accounting in the Ancient Near East, ed. Michael Hudson and Cornelia Wunsch (Bethesda, Md.: CDL Press, 2004), 21–46; Marvin A. Powell, ‘A Contribution to the History of Money in Mesopotamia Prior to the Invention of Coinage’, in Festschrift Lubor Matouš, ed. B. Hruška and G. Komoróczy (Budapest: Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem, 1978), 211–43; Marvin A. Powell, ‘Money in Mesopotamia’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 39:3 (1996), 224–42; John F. Robertson, ‘The Social and Economic Organization of Ancient Mesopotamian Temples’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 443–500; M. Silver, ‘Modern Ancients’, in Commerce and Monetary Systems in the Ancient World: Means of Transmission and Cultural Interaction, ed. R. Rollinger and U. Christoph (Stuttgart: Steiner, 2004), 65–87; Daniel C. Snell, ‘Methods of Exchange and Coinage in Ancient Western Asia’, in Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, vol. 1, ed. Sasson, 1,487–97.

11 Imperial Visions
1 Nahum Megged, The Aztecs (Tel Aviv: Dvir, 1999 [Hebrew]), 103.

2 Tacitus, Agricola, ch. 30 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press,
1958), 220–1.

3 A. Fienup-Riordan, The Nelson Island Eskimo: Social Structure and Ritual Distribution (Anchorage: Alaska Pacific University Press, 1983), 10.

4 Yuri Pines, ‘Nation States, Globalization and a United Empire – the Chinese Experience (third to fifth centuries BC)’, Historia 15 (1995), 54 [Hebrew].

5 Alexander Yakobson, ‘Us and Them: Empire, Memory and Identity in Claudius’ Speech on Bringing Gauls into the Roman Senate’, in On Memory: An Interdisciplinary Approach, ed. Doron Mendels (Oxford: Peter Land, 2007), 23–4.

12 The Law of Religion
1 W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Cambridge: James Clarke & Co., 2008), 536–7.

2 Robert Jean Knecht, The Rise and Fall of Renaissance France, 1483–1610 (London: Fontana Press, 1996), 424.

3 Marie Harm and Hermann Wiehle, Lebenskunde fuer Mittelschulen – Fuenfter Teil. Klasse 5 fuer Jungen (Halle: Hermann Schroedel Verlag, 1942), 152–7.

13 The Secret of Success
1 Susan Blackmore, The Meme Machine (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999).

14 The Discovery of Ignorance
1 David Christian, Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 344–5; Angus Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 2 (Paris: Development Centre of the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development, 2001), 636; ‘Historical Estimates of World Population’, US Census Bureau, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/worldhis.html.

2 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 261.

3 ‘Gross Domestic Product 2009’, the World Bank, Data and Statistics, accessed 10 December 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf.

4 Christian, Maps of Time, 141.

5 The largest contemporary cargo ship can carry about 100,000 tons. In 1470 all the world’s fleets could together carry no more than 320,000 tons. By 1570 total global tonnage was up to 730,000 tons (Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 97).

6 The world’s largest bank – the Royal Bank of Scotland – has reported in 2007 deposits worth $1.3 trillion. That’s five times the annual global production in 1500. See ‘Annual Report and Accounts 2008’, the Royal Bank of Scotland, 35, accessed 10 December 2010, http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/RBS/626570033}0}278481/eb7a003a-5c9b-41ef-bad3–81fb98a6c823/RBS_GRA_2008_09_03_09.pdf.

7 Ferguson, Ascent of Money, 185–98.
8 Maddison, The World Economy, vol. 1, 31; Wrigley, English Population
History, 295; Christian, Maps of Time, 450, 452; ‘World Health Statistic Report
2009’, 35–45, World Health Organization, accessed 10 December 2010

9 Wrigley, English Population History, 296.
10 ‘England, Interim Life Tables, 1980–82 to 2007–09’, Office for National Statistics, accessed 22 March 2012 http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm:77–61850.

11 Michael Prestwich, Edward I (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), 125–6.

12 Jennie B. Dorman et al., ‘The age-1 and daf-2 Genes Function in a Common Pathway to Control the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans’, Genetics 141:4 (1995), 1,399–406; Koen Houthoofd et al., ‘Life Extension via Dietary Restriction is Independent of the Ins/IGF-1 Signalling Pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans’, Experimental Gerontology 38:9 (2003), 947–54.

13 Shawn M. Douglas, Ido Bachelet and George M. Church, ‘A Logic-Gated Nanorobot for Targeted Transport of Molecular Payloads’, Science 335:6070 (2012): 831–4; Dan Peer et al., ‘Nanocarriers As An Emerging Platform for Cancer Therapy’, Nature Nanotechnology 2 (2007): 751–60; Dan Peer et al., ‘Systemic Leukocyte-Directed siRNA Delivery Revealing Cyclin Di as an Anti-Inflammatory Target’, Science 319:5863 (2008): 627–30.

15 The Marriage of Science and Empire
1 Stephen R. Bown, Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, St. Martin’s Press, 2004); Kenneth John Carpenter, The History of Scurvy and Vitamin C (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986).

2 James Cook, The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific, as Told by Selections of his Own Journals 1768–1779, ed. Archibald Grenfell Price (New York: Dover Publications, 1971), 16–17; Gananath Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 5; J. C. Beaglehole, ed., The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery, vol. 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968), 588.

3 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 81.

4 Christian, Maps of Time, 436.

5 John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 (London: Allen Lane, 2007), 239.

6 Soli Shahvar, ‘Railroads i. The First Railroad Built and Operated in Persia’, in the Online Edition of Encyclopaedia Iranica, last modified 7 April
2008, http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/railroads-i; Charles Issawi, ‘The Iranian Economy 1925–1975: Fifty Years of Economic Development’, in Iran under the Pahlavis, ed. George Lenczowski (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1978), 156.

7 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 46.

8 Kirkpatrick Sale, Christopher Columbus and the Conquest of Paradise (London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2006), 7–13.

9 Edward M. Spiers, The Army and Society: 1819–1914 (London: Longman, 1980), 121; Robin Moore, ‘Imperial India, 1858–1914’, in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Nineteenth Century, vol. 3, ed. Andrew Porter (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 442.

10 Vinita Damodaran, ‘Famine in Bengal: A Comparison of the 1770 Famine in Bengal and the 1897 Famine in Chotanagpur’, The Medieval History
Journal 10:1–2 (2007), 151.

16 The Capitalist Creed
1 Maddison, World Economy, vol. 1, 261, 264; ‘Gross National Income Per Capita 2009, Atlas Method and PPP’, the World Bank, accessed 10 December 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GNIPC.pdf.

2 The mathematics of my bakery example are not as accurate as they could be. Since banks are allowed to loan $10 for every dollar they keep in their possession, of every million dollars deposited in the bank, the bank can loan out to entrepreneurs only about $909,000 while keeping $91,000 in its vaults. But to make life easier for the readers I preferred to work with round numbers. Besides, banks do not always follow the rules.

3 Carl Trocki, Opium, Empire and the Global Political Economy (New York: Routledge, 1999), 91.

4 Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja, The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History (London: Zed Books, 2002), 22.

17 The Wheels of Industry
1 Mark, Origins of the Modern World, 109.

2 Nathan S. Lewis and Daniel G. Nocera, ‘Powering the Planet: Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:43 (2006), 15,731.

3 Kazuhisa Miyamoto (ed.), ‘Renewable Biological Systems for Alternative Sustainable Energy Production, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin 128 (Osaka: Osaka University, 1997), Chapter 2.1.1, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.fao.org/docrep/W7241E/w7241eo6.htm#2.1.1percent20solarpercent20energy; James Barber, ‘Biological Solar Energy’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 365:1853 (2007), 1007.

4 ‘International Energy Outlook 2010’, US Energy Information Administration, 9, accessed 10 December 2010,

5 S. Venetsky, ‘ “Silver” from Clay’, Metallurgist 13:7 (1969), 451; Fred Aftalion, A History of the International Chemical Industry (Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991), 64; A. J. Downs, Chemistry of Aluminium, Gallium, Indium and Thallium (Glasgow: Blackie Academic &
Professional, 1993), 15.

6 Jan Willem Erisman et al., ‘How a Century of Ammonia Synthesis Changed the World’, Nature Geoscience 1 (2008), 637.

7 G. J. Benson and B. E. Rollin (eds.), The Well-being of Farm Animals: Challenges and Solutions (Ames, IA: Blackwell, 2004); M. C. Appleby, J. A.
Mench and B. O. Hughes, Poultry Behaviour and Welfare (Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2004); J. Webster, Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2005); C. Druce and P. Lymbery, Outlawed in Europe: How America is Falling Behind Europe in Farm Animal Welfare (New York: Archimedean Press, 2002).

8 Harry Harlow and Robert Zimmermann, ‘Affectional Responses in the Infant Monkey’, Science 130:3373 (1959), 421–32; Harry Harlow, ‘The Nature of Love’, American Psychologist 13 (1958), 673–85; Laurens D. Young et al., ‘Early stress and later response to separation in rhesus monkeys’, American Journal of Psychiatry 130:4 (1973), 400–5; K. D. Broad, J. P. Curley and E. B. Keverne, ‘Mother-infant bonding and the evolution of mammalian social relationships’, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 361:1476 (2006), 2,199–214; Florent Pittet et al., ‘Effects of maternal experience on fearfulness and maternal behaviour in a precocial bird’, Animal Behaviour (March 2013), In Press – available online at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003347213000547).

9 ‘National Institute of Food and Agriculture’, United States Department of Agriculture, accessed 10 December 2010,

18 A Permanent Revolution
1 Vaclav Smil, The Earth’s Biosphere: Evolution, Dynamics and Change (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2002); Sarah Catherine Walpole et al., ‘The Weight of Nations: An Estimation of Adult Human Biomass’, BMC Public Health 12:439 (2012), http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471–2458/12/439.

2 William T. Jackman, The Development of Transportation in Modern England (London: Frank Cass & Co., 1966), 324–7; H. J. Dyos and D. H.
Aldcroft, British Transport-An Economic Survey From the Seventeenth Century to the Twentieth (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1969), 124–31; Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization of Time and Space in the 19th Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986).

3 For a detailed discussion of the unprecedented peacefulness of the last few decades, see in particular Steven Pinker, The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined (New York: Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein, Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York: Dutton, 2011); Gat, War in Human Civilization.

4 ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_annex_en.pdf. For mortality rates in previous eras see: Lawrence H. Keeley, War before Civilization: The Myth of the
Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996).

5 ‘World Health Report, 2004’, World Health Organization, 124, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/reporto4_en.pdf.

6 Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000), 21. See also Gat, War in Human Civilization, 129–31; Keeley, War before Civilization.

7 Manuel Eisner, ‘Modernization, Self-Control and Lethal Violence’, British Journal of Criminology 41:4 (2001), 618–638; Manuel Eisner, ‘Long-Term
Historical Trends in Violent Crime’, Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 30 (2003), 83–142; ‘World Report on Violence and Health: Summary, Geneva 2002’, World Health Organization, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/whr01_annex_en.pdf; ‘World Health Report, 2004’, World Health Organization, 124, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.who.int/whr/2004/en/reporto4_en.pdf.

8 Walker and Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence’, 30.

19 And They Lived Happily Ever After
1 For both the psychology and biochemistry of happiness, the following are good starting points: Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom (New York: Basic Books, 2006); R. Wright, The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life (New York: Vintage Books, 1994); M. Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’, American Psychologist 54:10 (1999): 821–7; F. A. Huppert, N. Baylis and B. Keverne (eds.), The Science of Well-Being (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005); Michael Argyle, The Psychology of Happiness, 2nd edition (New York: Routledge, 2001); Ed Diener (ed.), Assessing Well-Being: The Collected Works of Ed Diener (New York: Springer, 2009); Michael Eid and Randy J. Larsen (eds.), The Science of Subjective Well-Being (New York: Guilford Press, 2008); Richard A. Easterlin (ed.), Happiness in Economics (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002); Richard Layard, Happiness: Lessons from a New Science (New York: Penguin, 2005).

2 Daniel Kahneman, Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus and
Giroux, 2011); Inglehart et al., ‘Development, Freedom and Rising Happiness’,

3 D. M. McMahon, The Pursuit of Happiness: A History from the Greeks to
the Present (London: Allen Lane, 2006).

20 The End of Homo Sapiens
1 Keith T. Paige et al., ‘De Novo Cartilage Generation Using Calcium
Alginate-Chondrocyte Constructs’, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 97:1
(1996), 168–78.

2 David Biello, ‘Bacteria Transformed into Biofuels Refineries’, Scientific American, 27 January 2010, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=bacteria-transformed-into-biofuel-refineries.

3 Gary Walsh, ‘Therapeutic Insulins and Their Large-Scale Manufacture’, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 67:2 (2005), 151–9.

4 James G. Wallis et al., ‘Expression of a Synthetic Antifreeze Protein in Potato Reduces Electrolyte Release at Freezing Temperatures’, Plant Molecular Biology 35:3 (1997), 323–30.

5 Robert J. Wall et al., ‘Genetically Enhanced Cows Resist Intramammary Staphylococcus Aureus Infection’, Nature Biotechnology 23:4 (2005), 445–51.

6 Liangxue Lai et al., ‘Generation of Cloned Transgenic Pigs Rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids’, Nature Biotechnology 24:4 (2006), 435–6.

7 Ya-Ping Tang et al., ‘Genetic Enhancement of Learning and Memory in
Mice’, Nature 401 (1999), 63–9.

8 Zoe R. Donaldson and Larry J. Young, ‘Oxytocin, Vasopressin and the Neurogenetics of Sociality’, Science 322:5903 (2008), 900–904; Zoe R. Donaldson, ‘Production of Germline Transgenic Prairie Voles (Microtus Ochrogaster) Using Lentiviral Vectors’, Biology of Reproduction 81:6 (2009), 1,189–95.

9 Terri Pous, ‘Siberian Discovery Could Bring Scientists Closer to Cloning Woolly Mammoth’, Time, 17 September 2012, accessed 19 February 2013; Pasqualino Loi et al, ‘Biological time machines: a realistic approach for cloning an extinct mammal’, Endangered Species Research 14 (2011), 227–33; Leon Huynen, Craig D. Millar and David M. Lambert, ‘Resurrecting ancient animal genomes: The extinct moa and more’, Bioessays 34 (2012), 661–9.

10 Nicholas Wade, ‘Scientists in Germany Draft Neanderthal Genome’, New York Times, 12 February 2009, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/science/13neanderthal.html?_r=2&ref=science; Zack Zorich, ‘Should We Clone Neanderthals?’, Archaeology 63:2 (2009), accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.archaeology.org/1003/etc/neanderthals.html.

11 Robert H. Waterston et al., ‘Initial Sequencing and Comparative Analysis of the Mouse Genome’, Nature 420:6915 (2002), 520.

12 ‘Hybrid Insect Micro Electromechanical Systems (HI-MEMS)’, Microsystems Technology Office, DARPA, accessed 22 March 2012,
http://www.darpa.mil/Our_Work/MTO/P..._Micro_Electromechanical_Systems_percent28HI- MEMSpercent29.aspx. See also: Sally Adee, ‘Nuclear-Powered Transponder for Cyborg Insect’, IEEE Spectrum, December 2009, accessed 10 December 2010, http://spectrum.ieee.org/semiconductors/devices/nuclearpowered-transponder-for-cyborg-insect?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feedpercent3A+IeeeSpectrum+percent28IEEE+Spectrumpercent29&utm_content=Google+Reader; Jessica Marshall, ‘The Fly Who Bugged Me’, New Scientist 197:2646 (2008), 40–3; Emily Singer, ‘Send in the Rescue Rats’, New Scientist 183:2466 (2004), 21–2; Susan Brown, ‘Stealth Sharks to Patrol the High Seas’, New Scientist 189:2541 (2006), 30–1. 13 Bill Christensen, ‘Military Plans Cyborg Sharks’, Live Science, 7 March 2006, accessed 10 December 2010, http://www.livescience.com/technology/060307_shark_implant.html.

14 ‘Cochlear Implants’, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, accessed 22 March 2012, http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/coch.aspx.

15 Retina Implant, http://www.retina-implant.de/en/doctors/technology/default.aspx.

16 David Brown, ‘For 1st Woman With Bionic Arm, a New Life is Within Reach’, Washington Post, 14 September 2006, accessed 10 December 2010,.

17 Miguel Nicolelis, Beyond Boundaries: The New Neuroscience of Connecting Brains and Machines – and How it Will Change Our Lives (New
York: Times Books, 2011).

18 Chris Berdik, ‘Turning Thought into Words’, BU Today, 15 October 2008, accessed 22 March 2012,

19 Jonathan Fildes, ‘Artificial Brain “10 years away” ’, BBC News, 22 July 2009, accessed 19 September 2012, http://news.bbc.c0.uk/2/hi/8164060.stm.

20 Radoje Drmanac et al., ‘Human Genome Sequencing Using Unchained Base Reads on Self-Assembling DNA Nanoarrays’, Science 327:5961 (2010), 78–81; ‘Complete Genomics’ website: http://www.completegenomics.com/; Rob Waters, ‘Complete Genomics Gets Gene Sequencing under $5000 (Update 1)’, Bloomberg, 5 November 2009, accessed 10 December 2010;; Fergus Walsh, ‘Era of PersonalizedMedicine Awaits’, BBC News, last updated 8 April 2009, accessed 22 March 2012, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/health/7954968.stm; Leena Rao, ‘PayPal Co-Founder and Founders Fund Partner Joins DNA Sequencing Firm Halcyon Molecular’, TechCrunch, 24 September 2009, accessed 10 December 2010, http://techcrunch.com/2009/09/24/paypal-co-founder-and-founders-fund-partner-joins-dna-sequencing-firm-halcyon-molecular/.